Biofilm Survival Strategies in Chronic Wounds

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Bacterial biofilms residing in chronic wounds are thought to have numerous survival strate-gies, making them extremely difficult to eradicate and resulting in long-term infections. However, much of our knowledge regarding biofilm persistence stems from in vitro models and experiments performed in vivo in animal models. While the knowledge obtained from such experiments is highly valuable, its direct translation to the human clinical setting should be undertaken with caution. In this review, we highlight knowledge obtained from human clinical samples in different aspects of biofilm survival strategies. These strategies have been divided into segments of the following attributes: altered transcriptomic profiles, spatial distribution, the production of extracellular polymeric sub-stances, an altered microenvironment, inter-and intra-species interactions, and heterogeneity in the bacterial population. While all these attributes are speculated to contribute to the enhanced persistence of biofilms in chronic wounds, only some of them have been demonstrated to exist in human wounds. Some of the attributes have been observed in other clinical diseases while others have only been observed in vitro. Here, we have strived to clarify the limitations of the current knowledge in regard to this specific topic, without ignoring important in vitro and in vivo observations.

Original languageEnglish
Article number775
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2022

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© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

    Research areas

  • animal models, bacterial biofilm, extracellular polymeric substances, microenvironment, transcriptomics

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